Friday, May 22, 2020

Determination of Mans Role in Latin America Essay

Determination of Man’s Role in Latin America nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;How society describes what is meant by a man’s role is an important definition in every culture. What is right or wrong for men to do in terms of behavior depends on each community, and on people’s own perceptions. Latin American culture has a strict set of values on sexual issues, reflecting a man’s role in society. For all of the communities in Latin America there exists a relation between a man’s role and machismo. The exaggerated sense of manliness that machismo stands for is evident by parents when raising their male children, and by communities and their expectations. Machismo represents a culture of traditions indeed, but how does machismo define the role of†¦show more content†¦This idea of masculinity is not only recognized by men, but also by women. Moving from one partner to another when men are married is common in the culture. The necessity of different partners as a part of sexual conquest is important in the ir masculinity. An evident attribute for machismo is heterosexuality. â€Å"Masculine identity is associated with the fact of possessing, taking, penetrating, dominating, and asserting oneself, if necessary, by force† (Badinter 97). Consequently, the feminine identity is connected with its opposite to balance a sexual equation. The inequity between male and female causes the normality of women being dominated by men in Latin communities. The Hispanic culture highlights the abuse of women by men. In many cases the machismo is transmitted into domestic violence not only to the wife, but their children as well. Violence imposed by machos is an excuse for the necessity of controlling, demanding respect, and hiding vulnerability. Also, machismo is directly linked to the authoritarian parenting style. The authoritarian parenting style is conceived as a demanding father who doesn’t give any explanation to their children. The macho is an authoritarian parent who demands respect from the whole family. The machismo constitutes an explanation for subordination. In addition, the exaggerated male behavior that machismo represents â€Å"is assumed to stem from inadequateShow MoreRelatedThe Liberator By Alberto Arvelo896 Words   |  4 Pagesliberation of Latin America during the 1800s as well as the various obstacles Simà ³n Bolà ­var had overcome in order to free his country. The Liberator was an impactful film that truly demonstrated the hardships and inferiority of indigenous life due to Spain s reign of dominance which drastically damaged the overall tone and development of many Latin Americans. Throughout the duration of the film, various themes such as inequality, nationalism, and liberalism were present during Bolà ­var s war againstRead MoreThe Political Movements Of The 1980s And The Southern Cone Dictatorships And Guerrilla Warfare During Central America1540 Words   |  7 Pageswere described as lost decade due to the economic crisis and the Southern Cone dict atorships and guerrilla warfare in Central America. The woman was marginalized as any other minority, which made them aware of their fate. They decided to accept into their ranks women from the working classes from socio-political movements. It was during this decade that was set up the Latin American and Caribbean feminist meetings. The meeting place was a place of debate, discussion but also of ideas and projectsRead MoreAnalysis Of Taken Hostage By David Farber1350 Words   |  6 Pagesproblems and was unsuccessful in negotiating the release of the American hostages in Iran. 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Farber talked about all the events that lead to the Iranian Hosta geRead MoreCuba And The Cuban Missile Crisis1730 Words   |  7 Pagesfutile to attempt to discuss this history outside the projection of its former colonial master, Spain. According to the Library of congress, the history of Cuba begins with the inevitable arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492; a man credited with the discovery of the Americas that essentially laid the foundation for European colonization. The Spanish-American war provided a turning-point in the history of Cuba because one its main consequences was the independence of Cuba, ushering a new ear for USRead MoreFranklin Delano Roosevelt s Life And Education1592 Words   |  7 Pagesschool he didn’t seem to fit in very well with the other students, they were very athletic but Roosevelt was different. After graduating Groton Roosevelt attended Harvard University he participated in many extracurricular activities because of his determination to make something of himself. After graduating Harvard, Franklin decided to study law at the Columbia University Law School. He passed his bar exam in the year of 1907. After Franklin had been practicing law in upper New York, he found it boringRead MoreCivil Rights And Social Movements3291 Words   |  14 PagesCivil rights and Social Movements in the Americas Civil rights are the rights of individuals to be treated equally and free from discrimination. It allows others to be free from these unfair treatments in many different settings such as one’s education, employment, and housing. Originally, the term â€Å"Civil Rights† referred to the efforts of achieving equality for African Americans in all settings. However, today the term is used for all people whether they are black, white, women, or men. It would

Sunday, May 10, 2020

The Civil War Of The Southern And Southern States

Major civil war events took place between 1861 and 1865, which was a contribution of the division of nations. The war was between the southern and northern states. The northern states were not supportive of slavery in comparison to their southern counterparts. Although slavery was a major cause of the split between the north and south, it was not the only reason. The economic status, cultural activities and the position on state rights were also factors contributing to the division among the states. Slavery was a major issue that divided the northern and southern states. In this paper, the focus is on slavery as the divisive factor of the division of the northern and southern states. The civil war began with the election of Abraham†¦show more content†¦There was a major division among the Democrats and the destruction of the Whig party (â€Å"7.5 A divided nation†). The Democrats considered themselves as the â€Å"white man’s party† and considered the Republicans as being â€Å"negro dominated,† even though they had white leaders. The Whig party divided after the Compromise of 1850, which was created in an attempt to resolve disputes over slavery between the north and the south (Whig Party). The political leaders during this period were indecisive on the position to take with regards to the question of slavery. The rise of the Republican Party was after the downfall of the Whig party, and it was in support of the abolition of slavery. Publicizing the issue of slavery was a widespread occurrence during this time. After gaining awareness of the injustices of slavery, people were supportive of ending slavery. Uncle Tomâ €™s Cabin was one of the publications responsible for the rise in the antislavery movements (â€Å"7.5 A divided nation†). Due to industrialization in the north, the north was gaining majority seats in the House of Representatives (â€Å"Causes of the civil war- A northern perspective†). The Missouri Compromise in 1820 was an attempt to maintain balance between the states in support of and against slavery. The compromise encouraged people in the north to return runaway slaves and did not ban slavery, even in the free territories. There was agreement on the rights of the senate to make laws concerning

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Effect of Second Wave Free Essays

The consequence of 2nd moving ridge In order to cognize the consequence of 2nd moving ridge on the life’s of that clip we need to cognize what their life’s consisted of. It started with the construct of civilisation in 2000bc. Equally shortly as world discovered that they can turn their ain nutrient, and they don’t have to alter topographic points in hunt of resources. We will write a custom essay sample on The Effect of Second Wave or any similar topic only for you Order Now They figured out the natural resources needed to make agribusiness. Hence they started with the agricultural society. Where ab initio everyone was husbandman, but so easy alteration in their professions started. Peoples who had faith in God, claimed that they can speak to god and that the God wanted them to interpret his bid to common people, therefore they became priests. As the farms flourished in one country and in other due to natural catastrophe agribusiness failed. Hence others started occupying the well worse countries. In order to protect their resources, some physically fit people were appointed as soldiers. And some of them, who somehow lost their lands, started making uneven occupations of the society. Therefore, in this manner, profession got segregated by dramatis personae. As the society grew, the powerful became more powerful and weaker became more suppressed and increased in figure. Hierarchy in people got function in society edifice. This changed the architecture of the society bit by bit but drastically. Plan of Temple composites started germinating from one threshold to figure of thresholds. One for lower dramatis personae n upper dramatis personae, one for male monarch and common people, and one for priests n male monarchs. And the profession of all the groups of people was determined by what people used to believe of them. In this manner, those who were responsible for planing edifice and infinites became responsible for insistent signifiers throughout the timeline. In this manner, other working topographic points, common assemblage infinites, populating infinites got their signifiers due to this civilization. This society system continued to be in laterality boulder clay a technological revolution, the industrial revolution began in Britain and within a few decennaries spread to Western Europe and the United States. The period of clip covered by the industrial revolution is approximately between 1760 and 1830. This revolution marked the passage traveling from manus production methods to machines, new chemical and Fe production processes, improved efficiency of H2O power, the addition usage of steam power and the development of machine tools. Majorly all the little graduated table manual production Stationss were converted into big industries with machines working with steam power and assembly line system doing the production procedure much more efficient and faster. Important technological development occurred in fabric industry, Fe industry, steam engines, machine tools, chemicals, cement production, paper machine, glass devising, agribusiness, mining etc. We will discourse developments which affected the architecture of the clip straight. In Fe devising industry, the major alteration was replacing of wood and other bio fuels with coal. Abraham Darby made great work stoppages utilizing coke to fuel his blast furnaces at coalbrookdale in 1709. However, the coke hog Fe he made was used largely for the production on dramatis personae Fe goods. He made the production cheaper n faster but coke hog Fe was barely used for bring forthing saloon Fe. But his boy Abraham Darby 2 built Equus caballus hay and kettle furnaces. Since dramatis personae Fe was going cheaper and more plentiful, it began being a structural stuff following the edifice of the invention Fe span in 1778. In 1824, Joseph Aspdin, patented a chemical procedure for doing Portland cement which was an of import promotion in the edifice engineering. A new method of bring forthing glass was developed in Europe during the early 19Thursdaycentury. In 1832, this engineering was used to do big sizes of glass sheets. With inexpensive and faster production of Fe, the big build infinites like industries became larger in size, now the roof spans could be big and lighter and of class much faster to build. Large undertakings like Bridgess were made possible. With the easier production of cement one can switch to much more strong building stuff, this stuff was one measure in front of calcium hydroxide and brick masonry. With the development of big glass sheets the gaps of edifices changed. Spaces like places, close fold infinites, needed Windowss for sunshine and natural position and at the same clip taking attention of air current and rain. Technological promotions which came into drama at the clip of 2nd industrial revolution like roads, Bridgess, canals, railroads affected the architecture of that clip drastically. Ships were constructed of Fe, which made the travel faster and more people could go. In present society of agricultural civilization, distances between people was big hence there was no e xchange of cognition and civilization. But every bit shortly as this revolution happened, due to promotions like ship edifice, roads and railroad paths distances were made smaller and knowledge exchange became much easier. In this manner, the engineerings like metallurgy, cement, glass, beforehand agribusiness techniques found their manner in agricultural society’s worldwide. With the approaching industries people who were of the lower dramatis personae and given less importance found their manner to these industries which provided shelter, nutrient and employment to all of them. This made an instability in agricultural society and hence clash developed between both the thought. But in some manner, this 2nd moving ridge affected the society adversely, as the increase of employment ; figure of labors came deluging over in hunt of employment. Due to this big figure of people the degree of life style of these people took the set back. They were already from lower category, big in figure ; fewer resources to utilize made the lives of these people miserable. In hostile working conditions, populating infinites became heavy. These rose a large inquiry on the wellness of these people, people used to populate so close to each other that diseases used to distribute like fire. All this affected the architecture but non in a thoughtful manner, big shaded countries were made to shelter their labors. Community lavatories, bathrooms followed them. Due to this altering life style and altering economic system, bit by bit, a in-between category emerge in industrial metropoliss, largely towards the terminal of the nineteenth century. Until so, there had been merely two major categories in society: wealthy and privilege 1s, and low-income common mans born in the working categories. However new urban industries bit by bit required more of what we call today â€Å"white collar† occupations, such as concern people, tradesmans, bank clerks, insurance agents, merchandisers, comptrollers, directors, physicians, attorneies, and instructors. In-between category were those who prided themselves on taking duty for themselves and their households. They viewed professional success as the consequence of a person’s energy, doggedness, and difficult work. And due to this category, lodging architecture took a new bend. Affluent 1s had Villas and large person houses, whereas working people used to populate in bunchs, 100s of people us ed to populate together. This new set of people couldn’t afford single Villas but were non willing to populate in hostile conditions, where working category used to populate. Hence apartment’s construct got its individuality, where single floors were owned by single household. These lead to-hygienic and comfy infinites to populate. In these undermentioned ways the 2nd moving ridge showed its feeling on the architecture of that clip: India was strictly a hub of different agricultural societies with different believes, different rites, different infinites but same hierarchy. But in 19Thursdaycentury, when Britons arrived and started trade in India, so the First World War happened. India was flooded with industrial revolution based civilization. This civilization was of fast production, assembly line, big industries with tonss of Equus caballus power in the signifier of new coal engines. Transportation, roads, railroads were introduced in India. This brought the new thoughts of edifice in India, which in bend once more affected agricultural society. After independency, the 3rd moving ridge besides found its manner to India and surprisingly spreaded in India quicker than in other parts of universe. And hence, the present India makes a really apathetic combination of agricultural, industrial, information based society. How to cite The Effect of Second Wave, Essay examples

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Khrushchev was the most successful leader of Russia Essay Example

Khrushchev was the most successful leader of Russia Paper Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev was and remains Russia’s most conscientious leader, who correctly identified problems within Russia and the first to initiate fundamental change, which would bring about sustained prosperity and stability within all aspects of Russia. In order to implement this, Khrushchev had either rejected previous policies for their failure or weaknesses to adequately work, in order to replace them with ones more functional at grassroots level, or to first produce policies that would allow initial growth to occur. It is these policies which have remained fundamental to Russia; though later leaders may have furthered or readjusted them, their initial purpose remained at the core of many later policies. Reforms were intended to produce an improvement in all elements of Russia’s state functioning collectively; with the intension of such policies providing the groundwork for their further development by later leaders and this is precisely what is noticed in succeeding offices, which saw an elaboration of certain elements of Khrushchev’s initial policies. It is these initial policies which laid the basis for further reform, which allow me to deem Khrushchev the most successful leader; as it was reformations implemented on his behalf, which provided the framework for further sustained successful development. An example of Khrushchev’s rejection of previous policies to function sufficiently and replace them with adequate ones, is the 20th party conference in 1956. Khrushchev spoke of a â€Å"new political thinking†, in which he made visible, that previous attempts to successfully implement â€Å"socialism† were ineffective. We will write a custom essay sample on Khrushchev was the most successful leader of Russia specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Khrushchev was the most successful leader of Russia specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Khrushchev was the most successful leader of Russia specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer If Russia was to transgress from its current position economic, political and social instability it had to part with former ways in order to accomplish this. Khrushchev acknowledged that transgression to economic and social prosperity had to come at a price. Khrushchev largely knew that the Russian political spectrum had been manufactured and dictated by the sole decisions-making of one individual: Stalin. As A. J. P. Taylor writes: â€Å"Stalin alone made every great decision [2] Russia’s stagnation was confound, to the political momentum in which Stalin was the sole instigator. The concept of Stalinisation was one in which all elements of Russian diplomatic and civil expression where entranced in absolute totalitarian control by one man. Transgression in any direction was indentured, by that individuals own perception of development – be it even if it was or wasn’t justifiable or applicable; as-long as they deemed it just. As Khrushchev stated at the 20th party conference: â€Å"Stalin acted not through persuasion nd cooperation with people, but by demanding absolute submission to his opinion. †[3] It is therefore to no surprise, that the implementation of de-Stalinisation was pivotal in permitting development in Russia. De-Stalinisation was a political tool which permitted the political domain of Russia to freely express new political initiatives, without being restricted by fear of opposing the totalitarian regime. The infrastructure was not reformed by this process, rather re-opened: it was now liable to change. It is this fundamental principle which became immensely pivotal for the development of Russia. De-Stalinisation fragmented previous policies which were deem unbeneficial, so their reconstruction for a more prosperous one in which sustained abrupt industrial, agricultural, civil and diplomatic advances where sufficiently developed and maintained- could be achieved. The rejection of previous failings is an intellectual concept pioneered by Khrushchev and adopted by every successor of his; for its practical advantages. It allowed the person in power to reform certain elements of the state; by initially focusing of on the weaknesses of the current system, than providing an alternative structure, which was in direct comparison to the sole failures of the previous one, obviously superior though whether or not these advantages where correctly comprehended by such individuals, is a different matter all together. [4] The â€Å"thaw† was the first attempt by a communist leader, to alleviate tensions between ideological and social demands, with John Keen claims: â€Å"His [Khrushchev’s] greatest accomplishment was to end the reign of fear [5] Such policies are testimony of Khrushchev’s implementation of combating Long-term problems confronting Russia, as Khrushchev claimed: â€Å"we must help people to live well. You cannot put theory into your soup or Marxism into your clothes. †[6] The â€Å"thaw† was a reformation of the ideological constraints, that communism had previously put on the Russian people. Previous rule restricted the development of civil reform: working conditions and general civil liberty remained severely undeveloped. The constant shrift between restricted and relaxed censorship was a long-term problem persistent throughout Russian history. Previous attempts of totalitarian rule had proved to be of little benefit to the state; in certain instances it furthered dissidents towards the government by the populace. As repression of censorship was bound to frustrate the Russian people, who were continuously placed in direct comparison with the west, yet in reality societal functioning differed greatly between the two: especially in terms of freedoms. What we see here, is Khrushchev’s realisation that reformation of any aspect of Russia, goes hand-in-hand with each other. It is of little significance if industrial reforms take place for economic growth, if social reforms which accommodate those who take on such policies are poor: one is bound to affect the other, as they are not of equal standards. Such tactics are similar to that of Witte and Stolypin; who both saw economic growth accompanied by social reform. We see here Khrushchev being the first (within communism), to create the basis for civil reformation; in order for it to accompany other reforms, which go hand-in-hand with overall prosperity. Therefore Vladimir Putin, who indicates a return to authoritarian rule, whereby media production is censored and suppression of regional provinces (such as Dagestan and Chechnya’s) right to self-governing bodies, may indicate a leadership were comprehension of the consequences of totalitarian rule verses increased civil liberty, are not correctly identified. As Sakwa states, Putin’s Russian society is characteristic of a centralised â€Å"Soviet-style bureaucracy†: similar to Stalin. [7] However, a conclusion on Putin’s office is not comprehensive, as his government remains; still reforming elements of society. The â€Å"thaw† is a clear demonstration of the importance of state prosperity (economic growth), being interlinked with general reforms. The sole expansion of one aspect of the state (e. g. the economy), cannot adequately develop, as the overall environment of the state would still be lacking behind. These general reforms can be seen as the long-term problems of Russia: agricultural and social reforms. The major mistake of leaders is to solely focus on the economic aspect of Russia, while ignoring the possible social elements; consequently drifting attention away from the ameliorated conditions of one aspect, to poorer ones. This is precisely what Khrushchev – along with Witte and Stolypin – emphasised; if all aspects of Russia are not reformed equally, disdain for a condition which is improved, is displaced onto another condition that is less developed: consequently leading to possible anarchy. These persistent long-term problems had to be assessed equally with other pivotal reforms, in order for the state to progress; this is apparent in the rule of Nicholas II. Industrial growth was prioritised, with industrial output increasing from 810 in 1908, to 1165 in 1913; showing signs of stability. [8] Yet what remained prominent, was the fundamental issue of poor social conditions. [9] Consequently leading to upheaval and opposition: such as the Lena Goldfields Massacre (1912) and Bloody Sunday (1905). These were all expressions of discontent with the conditions at hand. [10] These matters were further ignored, to point were upheaval against poor conditions was common place in 1917; which saw the Petrograd protest leading to a string of events, that brought about the collapse of the Tsar. [11] Khrushchev’s point is further empathised here; possibly the Tsarist regime would have been better equipped, if it had improved such persisting issues equally: continuity of industrial, agriculture and social development. Historians Koenker and Von Laue concur with this view, claiming that Nicholas’ incompetence in meeting social and industrial demands, further intensified the already fragile situation. [12] If long-term matters were equally addressed, possibly the collapse of the tsarist regime could have been prevented. The tenure of Khrushchev saw the greatest attempt at reforming the economic system, into one which would pose the most benefit: such are the policies of democratisation and decentralisation. [13] Such policies were compelled by mid-1957. Between 1954-55 approximately 11,000 enterprises moved from central to independent control, May 1955 major planning and financial decisions were removed from state Moscow control, to republican hold: Russia had become decentralised. [14] Proportions of industry were also subject to the effects of decentralisation; with Moscow-based ministries replaced with sovnarkhozy: independent organisations, free to regulate industrial activity within their provenance. In turn, greater autonomy was given to the industrial spectrum. The purposes of these policies were not to transform the economic structure into a western one, but rather allow beneficial advancements to be made. Prior to Khrushchev, the economic system created by Stalin, meant that the majority of state revenue was derived from the exportation of grain and with state farms operating at a loss, an alternative was â€Å"necessary. †[15] Yet the economic system was so entrenched in collectivisation, that no other alternative was deemed possible. Decentralisation and democratisation were proposed alternatives by Khrushchev. These policies provided Russia with the basis for possible further economic reform: it initially reopened the economic system, by making it more flexibly in areas of production and management. The fact that Khrushchev’s relatively short tenure did not permit sustained development of the vast amount of his policies, may indicate why these policies did not produce substantial industrial growth initially. Rather if time was permitted, these policies could have been further developed and produced possible growth. Thus if Brezhnev’s tenure had experienced prosperity at the beginning of his office, it may be due to an elaboration of Khrushchev’s policies; with later stagnation resulting from a reversal of these policies. Statistics show an initial increase in production: such as iron output increasing by 56 percent during 1965-75 and then decreasing to less than 7 percent from 1975-85. [16] Furthered by Brezhnev’s later crippled economic output, prior industrial growth stagnated in 1970-80, falling to less than 2. 6 percent. Similarly the Soviet Union’s GNP had fallen from 5. 2 percent in 1970, to 2. percent in 1980. [17] It appears that the effects of decentralisation were beneficial and a reversal of such policies would therefore counter-track production: which is seen under the centralised economy of Brezhnev. [18] The fact that Khrushchev’s policies were contributing to industrial growth, was an indicator of its successfulness. Therefore what was the necessity of their reversal? Thereby allowing us to stratify Brezhnev’s tenure into two categories: continuity of success due to the Khrushchev era and poor economic leadership by Brezhnev; causing further economic stagnation. Likewise, Stalin’s Collectivisation process had failed to produce an economic structure of continuity, with state farms operating at a loss, since procurement prices which were set by the state, had hardly been increased since 1928. [19] Stalin was indeed conscious of this, stating to the party that they had become â€Å"dizzy with success†; however no economic alternative was proposed. [20] If centralisation proved economically ineffective, why were decision not taken to alter the cause of direction – similar to Khrushchev? Perhaps these are largely signs of a poor economic leadership, on behalf of Brezhnev and Stalin. Gorbachev’s office shows that Khrushchev’s policies were later adopted and furthered by his successors. Though these policies were not initially adopted, when Gorbachev acknowledged that the state was in a point of crisis, these policies were then re-implemented. This initial misconception, is seen in Gorbachev’s foremost policies, which akin to the predecessors of Khrushchev, perceived stability solely through economic expansion; as he stated in the Central Committee meeting: economic growth was â€Å"the key to all our problems [21] Though unaware that economic growth demanded general reformation, expected growth bore no noticeable gain and thus lead Gorbachev to recognise the necessity of Khrushchev’s earlier policies; that general reform accompanied economic expansion. Therefore the later office of Gorbachev saw a continuity and elaboration of Khrushchev’s primary policies. He re- engaged in the process of denunciation, stating at the 27th Party Congress: â€Å"readjustment of the economic mechanisms begins with a rejection Peaceful co-existence was revisited; seen in the agreement with the US, to destroy intermediate-range nuclear weapons and the approval of the dismantling of the Berlin wall. Moreover, the civil and economic reforms of glasnost and perestroika, were but a build up of Khrushchev’s initial policies of reforming communism and decentralisation. Though McCauley argues Gorbachev’s reforms were pivotal to the creation of a civil state, the question is whether these policies would have been perused, if Khrushchev would have not laid the framework for their development? Likewise to Gorbachev’s initial perspective, Yeltsin perceived stability to be through economic might. [22] Yeltsin provided state initiatives (vouchers), with the purpose of creating a new entrepreneurial class (oligarchs), which would increase privately owned corporations; in turn pose similar benefits as Kulaks. Such a class would evolve into the dominant force to allow the economic structure of Russia to transform to one similar to western lines; as Yeltsin stated: the vouchers were â€Å"a short ticket to the free market. The oligarchs creation, meant the majority of the state’s economic resources were tied within the oligarchs; yet they redirected their own resources in international investments, rather than Russia’s. The result was a misjudgement of the oligarchs function, as they produce no abrupt economic growth as hoped. Rather they stimulated the growth of a corrupt black market. Though these policies were unsuccessful, the fact remains that the previ ous failing economic structure was redeveloped to the point, were transgression to a new system which could be further developed, was conceivable. An identical question to Gorbachev is posed: would any change have been permitted, if Khrushchev did not lay the foundation for their development, as they were continuations of Khrushchev’s decentralisation policies? T. A. Morris and Alan Wood, hold a conventional view that soviet agricultural growth was the consequence of Stalin, though such a perceptive can be challenged [23] Khrushchev’s initial policies of â€Å"Thaw† fragmented the Russian infrastructure, thus allowing reformation to take form: in this context, agriculture. During the near end of the Stalinist era, collective farms were operating at a substantial loss; agricultural functioning was in need of redevelopment. [24] Khrushchev’s methods of agricultural melioration were not merely intended for economic gain; they posed the first signs of agricultural and social advances. Taxes and compulsory state quotas was reduced, private plot was reintroduced, wages amounted, surplus labour was rewarded not demanded and Stalin’s practically insufficient â€Å"collective farms†, were lessened of their power. 25] Such policies were furthered by the 1954 Virgin Lands Scheme: its primary concern being the pre-occupation of uncultivated lands within the state. [26] Between 1954-60, 41. 8million hectares of â€Å"virgin land† had been ploughed. [27] Agricultural production was officially augmented by 3 per cent in 1954, with state procurement of grain rising by 50 per cent annually during 1954-63: predominantly from the virgin lands scheme. 28] The significance is thus, agricultural production may not have experienced a boom like that of Stalin’s, yet for the first time in soviet history, it did not stagnate nor fluctuate: it stabilised throughout the whole of Khrushchev’s tenure – largely unparalleled with pervious or later leaders Stalin had told party delegates of â€Å"a new policy of eliminating the Kulaks † as they were perceived to be the reason for Russia’s agricultural Laxness. [29] It is these actions, which form the basis for Khrushchev’s argument in the de-Stalinisation speech. Were the Kulaks not of economical benefit, during and before the tenure of Stalin? The primary creation of the Kulaks by Stolypin, was for economic growth. [30] Khrushchev’s criticism was not on the idea of producing grain on a grand scale to export for an economic capital, in turn redirecting the capital to industrial expansion, rather the way it was implemented. Was it utterly â€Å"necessary†, to liquidate the most prosperous and agriculturally beneficial class in Russia? Where there no other alternatives, which would show the same output as collectivisation and yet keep this class? The Virgin Lands Scheme was the alternative solution pioneered by Khrushchev, yet the alternative agricultural strategy was always available. Collectivisation under Stalin, involved the mass consolidation of grain; under state control. In order to hasten the rate of state grain procurement, forceful measures had to be implemented; involving the genocide of Russia’s most prized agricultural labourers: Kulaks. The Virgin Lands Scheme removed the need for state interference in order to raise state grain procurement. The necessity of collectivisation is once again questioned, with Getty viewing it as a necessity and those such as Perry, believing it to be â€Å"a tragedy for Russia †[32] Khrushchev was once again at the forefront of deconstructing inadequate policies, in order to replace them with ones more beneficial; thereby allowing these newer policies to be of greater economic advantage, as they remove the weaknesses of previous policies (i. e. annihilation of the Kulaks). If Stalin’s own direct predecessor acknowledged such a scheme prior to taking the post of general secretary, why didn’t Stalin? Its benefits are evident: grain production would have increased and without the removal of the Kulaks, it could have further stimulated production. This could rather be a sign of not only Stalin’s but all Russian leaders’ ignorance, of Russia’s own economic and agricultural potential. Does not the fact that Khrushchev clearly realised this, indicate his superior economic strategising and leadership? The creations of Khrushchev’s policies of Detente and Peaceful co-existence, steamed from Khrushchev’s tenure into that of every succeeding leader: for the sheer benefits which these policies brought. Prior to Khrushchev, poor foreign relations between Russia, the west and America, confound Russia in continuous international conflicts; bringing a halt to economic and social development of the state. We only have to examine the predecessors of Khrushchev to understand this. Within the tenure of Lenin, social stability was prevented, as the state remained in constant battle with international forces, consequently bring about civil war. Moreover, John Griggs states, Lenin’s government never saw effective attempts at ameliorating the state’s improvised economic situation. The fact remains, that involvement in war prohibited development. A state in international conflict had to redirect its resources, from industrial expansion and/or social development, to defence departments; Stalin’s tenure is testimony to this. Though at the beginning priority was given to economic matters, during the later part (1939 onwards), all economic resources were redirected into military expansion and development, in preparation for war. Furthermore, tensions between the USSR and other western democratises during the office of Stalin, became so ripe it lead to the greater development of the Cold War. As Churchill claimed: â€Å"an iron curtain† was drawn between the USSR and the rest of the world. 33] It’s the removal of this â€Å"iron curtain† which remained fundamental to Khrushchev’s foreign policies: constant poor international relations had prohibited positive development in the USSR and if such relations continued, the Cold War itself would evolve into one that would bring the same demise as previous wars. Khrushchev installed Detente and peaceful co-existence, because of its necessity; Russia could not continue nor economically afford perpetual involvement in War. Thus leading to relations with America, Europe and even China, being reaffirmed rather in the case of China, begin development on a positive note. Consequently In 1963, after a bad harvest, grain was imported from America – later becoming a regular occurrence and feature of the improved Soviet-US relationship. [35] However, this is not to say that the Soviet Union was not subject to international tensions: like the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. [36] It can be argued that the Crisis was a contradiction of Khrushchev’s policies of Peaceful co-existence, as is posed the possible outbreak of nuclear war and an increase in international tensions. However, attention should be drawn to the outcome of the matter. After an initial warning by President Kennedy, Khrushchev agreed on the removal of nuclear missiles within Cuba and a S. A. L. T. [37] What is seen here is a pursuit for international peace, rather than an expansion on nuclear defences; which would prevent a similar occurrence in the future. Khrushchev’s development of positive foreign policies – or rather his approach as a peace maker are what gave Russia the framework to remain a superpower and allow development to occur; as if these policies were not initiated, the USSR would have seen a continuity in war which would have brought her to her knee’s sooner, rather than later. What does not allow us to solely focus on the tenure of Khrushchev to draw a comprehensive conclusion, is the relatively short period he remained in office. What remains problematic is the fact that policies which Khrushchev had implemented, were merely initiated in his tenure and developed in the that of others, and those that remained underdeveloped (such as the Virgin Lands Scheme), is the consequence of the lack of time, which Khrushchev had to firmly implement them. Moreover, Khrushchev’s policies did not cease at the end of his tenure, but were further developed in that of his successors. Examination of later economic, diplomatic and civil reformations by latter leaders, shows evidence of Khrushchev policies being further developed, not abandoned, in order to bring about change or maintenance of an aspect of Russia. Nowhere is this more evident, than in the tenure of Gorbachev; which saw an utter elaboration of Khrushchev’s economic and civil policies. I believe the continuity of the vast amount of Khrushchev’s policies into the office of later leaders, as self acclaimed success: they were adopted by leaders not because there was no alternative, rather because they were necessary policies. Therefore the one who first initiated these policies (Khrushchev), allows me to deem them, the most successful leader during 1905 -2005.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Freedom Writers

Freedom Writers Free Online Research Papers Erin Gruwell (Hilary Swank) is a first-time teacher who wants to make a difference. She has little idea of what shes getting into when she volunteers to be an English teacher at a newly integrated high school in Long Beach, CA. Her students are divided along racial lines and have few aspirations beyond basic survival. When Erin discovers how much of their lives are blighted by racial prejudice, she introduces them to books like The Diary of Anne Frank and begins to educate them for real; a process that culminates in the idea that each of them, like Anne, will keep a journal of their innermost thoughts. Over time these underachieving students begin to bond into a family of sorts. I really enjoyed watching Freedom Writers because it states the fact that no matter where you are, who you are, that you can get through issues in your life if you fight through them. Very good motivational film. I found it very inspiring, but very unrealistic. Most teachers are not qualified to do the things she did and Ive found that Freedom Writers has inspired some very untalented teachers to try to be like her. But, hey, if it worked for Erin Gruwell, then thats fantastic and good for her. This movie has a clichà © storyline, but I dont think that it was a bad movie, as it is a true story. I think that more stories like that need to be told, even if they do have a sappy ending. Also, this movie was a little slow-paced and redundant. Is anyone getting tired of the same old theme of a rich white girl going to go save inner-city children through making a difference? This movie has been done too many times and I would not waste my money to see something that I’ve already seen. Its like, get creative. I feel the same with all those interracial dance movies. A white kid learns how to dance with the other race kids and then they accept them because of how they dance blah blah blah. Its ridiculous! Research Papers on Freedom WritersStandardized TestingMy Writing ExperienceRacism and InjusticeThe Broken FamilyEssay on â€Å"I have a Dream† Dr KingAdvertising EssayHomer The Great Greek PoetDistance Learning Survival GuideAlbatross and Rimm of the Ancient MarinerCo-Educational vs. Single Sex Schools

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

The Consequences of the Norman Conquest

The Consequences of the Norman Conquest William of Normandy’s success in the Norman Conquest of 1066, when he seized the crown from Harold II, used to be credited with bringing in a host of new legal, political and social changes to England, effectively marking 1066 as the start of a new age in English history. Historians now believe the reality is more nuanced, with more inherited from the Anglo-Saxons, and more developed as a reaction to what was happening in England, rather than the Normans simply recreating Normandy in their new land. Nevertheless, the Norman Conquest still bought many changes. The following is a list of the major effects. Anglo-Saxon elites, the largest landholders in England, were replaced by Franco-Normans. Those Anglo-Saxons nobles who had survived the battles of 1066 had the chance to serve William and retain power and land, but many rebelled over contentious issues, and soon William had turned away from compromise to importing loyal men from the continent. By William’s death, the Anglo-Saxon aristocracy was all but replaced. In the Domesday book of 1086, there are only four large English landowners. However, there may only have been around 25,000 Franco-Normans out of a population of two million when William died. There was not a massive importation of a new Norman population, just the people at the top.Much of the upper reaches of church government was replaced. By 1087, eleven of fifteen bishops were Norman, and only one of the other four was English. The church had power over people and land, and now William had power over them.Castles: Anglo-Saxons did not, in general, build castles, a nd the Normans started a huge building program in order to help secure their power. The most common early type was wooden, but stone followed. The castle building habits of the Normans has left a mark on England still visible to the eye (and the tourist industry is thankful for it.) The importance of receiving land from a lord in return for loyalty and service grew enormously under the Normans, who created a system of land tenure unmatched in Europe. Quite how homogenous this system was (probably not very), and whether it can be called feudal (probably not) are still being discussed. Before the conquest, Anglo-Saxons owed an amount of service based on regularized units of land holding; afterward, they owed service based entirely on the settlement they had achieved with their overlord or the king.The idea that a person held two types of land – his ‘patrimony’ / family land which he had inherited, and his extended lands which he had conquered – and the idea that these lands could go to different heirs, came into England with the Normans. Familial relationships, of heirs to parents, changed as a result.The links between Scandinavia and England were deeply severed. Instead, England was brought closer to events in France and this region of the continent, leading to the Angevin Empire and then the Hundred Years War. Before 1066 England had seemed destined to stay in the orbit of Scandinavian, whose conquerors had taken hold of large chunks of the British Isles. After 1066 England looked south. Increased use of writing in government. While the Anglo-Saxons had written some things down, Anglo-Norman government vastly increased it.After 1070, Latin replaced English as the language of government.The power of the earls was reduced after Anglo-Saxon rebellions. Earls now held less land, with correspondingly reduced wealth and influence.Royal forests, with their own laws, were created.Higher taxes: most monarchs are criticized for heavy taxes, and William I was no exception. But he had to raise funds for the occupation and pacification of England.A new court, known as the Lords, honourial or seigniorial, was created. They were held, as the name suggests, by lords for their tenants, and have been called a key part of the â€Å"feudal† system.Murdrum fines: if a Norman was killed, and the killer not identified, the entire English community could be fined. That this law was needed perhaps reflects on the problems faced by the Norman raiders.Trial by battle was introduced.Ther e was a large decline in the numbers of free peasants, who were lower class workers who could quit their land in search of new landlords. Far more English land was given to continental monasteries, to hold as ‘alien priories’, then before the Norman Conquest. Indeed, more monasteries were founded in England.Continental architecture was imported en mass. Every major Anglo-Saxon cathedral or abbey, apart from Westminster, was rebuilt bigger and more fashionably. Parish churches were also widely rebuilt in stone.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Argument for Euthanasia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Argument for Euthanasia - Essay Example Sometimes euthanasia refers to assisted suicide owing to the fact that a physician has to be involved in the act. I seek to defend the rule and existence of euthanasia in the contemporary society with much consideration of the impact that pain results to individuals. It is true that euthanasia relieves a patient from suffering prolonged pain especially due to diseases that are not easily treated. Euthanasia should be endorsed at all costs because it leads to easy death without necessarily letting an individual patient undergo long-term suffering occasioned by terminal disease. The proponents of euthanasia in the views of Soifer claim that the values of life encompass self- determination, which allows individuals, make proper decision in accordance with how they perceive good life (13). Individual patients have the rights of accepting to be under life sustaining technology or left to die. One is supposed to decide by oneself the nature of death he/she deems better as a way of alleviat ing suffering. In addition, ethics allow the family of the patient to call for euthanasia when it realizes that the victim may survive even after receiving series of treatment (Soifer 12). This may be viable especially in the conditions where the patient has become burden to the family in terms of medical care bills while posing no signs of improvement. The two modalities of assisted euthanasia should be applied depending on the circumstance that requires provision of assisted death to an ailing patient. The families of the patients suffering from terminal pains should always be allowed to opt for passive involuntary euthanasia to be carried on the patient. Considering the fact the family members of the patient are the ones who cater for medical of the patient, they should always be allowed to make decisions for doctors to overdose the patients or disconnect the patient from the sustaining machines. Practicing euthanasia on persons perceived to have little or no probability of survi ving should be approved for the act save governments and individual intimates of the patient some amount of money and revenue that can otherwise be enhanced in developing other sectors if economy. Endorsing euthanasia will mean increased death rates in an economy, which may lead balanced distribution of resources in an economy thereby stabilizing and strengthening the specific economy. Active voluntary euthanasia proclaimed by the individual patient under proper mental consciences. Active euthanasia bears great elements of self-rights and self-decision concerning the manner in which an individual plan to conduct his/ her life. In addition, every individual has expanse right to die and should not be deterred from deciding death if his/her decision to die does not pose negative effects to other people. It is explicitly wrong to let an ailing patient continue to suffer over a disease that has no possible cure at the time that he/she has expressed willingness to die. With the growing po pulation of ill people across the world to an extent that there arises immense shortage of health facilities, endorsing euthanasia will assist in evacuating the congested health facilities. When the terminally sick individuals continue to occupy beds and space, other patients who only suffer from curable diseases may lack and miss health facilities. I also stand to support the legislations formulated in Netherlands that supports practicing of voluntary euthana